NEW DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTING Free __HOT__ RADICAL DAMAGE
Another unique quality of our cosmetic Vitamin C oil-soluble liquid is that it prevents lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation results from free radical damage and also contributes to cell damage and premature aging. Our Vitamin C oil-soluble liquid makes it a unique product which is readily absorbed into the skin providing that added protection and nourishment that your skin deserves.
NEW DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTING FREE RADICAL DAMAGE
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are readily oxidized, and hence lipid peroxidation products are widely used to characterize oxidative damage56,57,58. Lipid peroxidation can be initiated by certain ROS and proceed as a random, non-enzymatic (often chain) radical process. However, there are also enzymatic mechanisms (for example, lipoxygenases) available for peroxidation of free PUFAs or PUFA-phospholipids that produce specific signalling products with biological roles. Thus, when measuring lipid peroxidation the focus might be placed on either (1) establishment of increased lipid peroxidation as an example of oxidative damage or (2) identification of individual oxidatively modified lipid molecules acting as signals by selective interaction with certain cellular targets.
Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant made by the body. It is found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy. Antioxidants attack "free radicals," waste products created when the body turns food into energy. Free radicals cause harmful chemical reactions that can damage cells, making it harder for the body to fight off infections. They also damage organs and tissues.
Other antioxidants work only in water (such as vitamin C) or fatty tissues (such as vitamin E). But alpha-lipoic acid is both fat and water soluble. That means it can work throughout the body. Antioxidants in the body are used up as they attack free radicals. But evidence suggests alpha-lipoic acid may help regenerate these other antioxidants and make them active again.
Several studies suggest alpha-lipoic acid helps lower blood sugar levels. Its ability to kill free radicals may help people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, who have pain, burning, itching, tingling, and numbness in arms and legs from nerve damage. Researchers believe Alpha-lipoic acid helps improve insulin sensitivity.
Because alpha-lipoic acid can pass easily into the brain, it may help protect the brain and nerve tissue. Researchers are investigating it as a potential treatment for stroke and other brain problems involving free radical damage, such as dementia. So far, there's no evidence to say whether or not it works.
Preliminary studies suggest alpha-lipoic acid may help treat glaucoma. But there is not enough evidence to say for sure whether it works. In one study on aging skin, a cream with 5% lipoic acid helped reduce fine lines from sun damage. Studies show ALA binds with toxic metals, such as mercury, arsenic, iron, and other metals that act as free radicals. Preliminary studies also suggest that ALA may play a role in managing other conditions including erectile dysfunction and cancer. And preliminary studies suggest it may reduce complications associated with otitis media (ear infections).
Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you're exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation.
Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Other naturally occurring antioxidants include flavonoids, tannins, phenols and lignans. Plant-based foods are the best sources. These include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, herbs and spices, and even cocoa.
Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, and antidiabetic effect). It has been widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industry. Ferulic acid is a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze free radical generation and an enhancer of scavenger enzyme activity. Ferulic acid has a protective role for the main skin structures: keratinocytes, fibroblasts, collagen, elastin. It inhibits melanogenesis, enhances angiogenesis, and accelerates wound healing. It is widely applied in skin care formulations as a photoprotective agent, delayer of skin photoaging processes, and brightening component. Nonetheless, its use is limited by its tendency to be rapidly oxidized.
Acute ischemic stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy are the main revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury after revascularization therapy can result in worsening outcomes. Among all possible pathological mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury, free radical damage (mainly oxidative/nitrosative stress injury) has been found to play a key role in the process. Free radicals lead to protein dysfunction, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell death. Additionally, free radical damage has a strong connection with inducing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema, which are the major complications of revascularization therapy, and mainly influencing neurological outcomes due to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. In order to get a better clinical prognosis, more and more studies focus on the pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical neuroprotective therapies against free radical damage. This review discusses the pathological mechanisms of free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury and adjunctive neuroprotective therapies combined with revascularization therapy against free radical damage.
Revascularization therapy may cause severe complications, such as hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema, and free radical damage during ischemia reperfusion has a strong connection with these complications (Figure 2). Patients who experience these complications may get worse outcomes, even the responsible large vessel recanalization.
Edema caused by free radicals can be divided into vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema. Vasogenic edema is related to the increased permeability of the BBB, the mechanisms of which are discussed above. Cytotoxic edema is connected with the dysfunction of ion transport in membranes. The ion transport proteins oxidized by ROS include ion channels, ion pumps, ion exchangers, and ion cotransporters. ROS can peroxidize membrane phospholipids, oxidize sulfhydryl groups located on the ion transport proteins, inhibit oxidative phosphorylation, and decrease ATP levels, which will induce dysfunction of ion transport leading to cytotoxic edema [114, 115] (Figure 2). Additionally, ROS participate in inhibition of the uptake of glutamate by Na+/glutamate transport. Massive glutamate released during ischemia reperfusion destroys the homeostasis of Na+, K+, and Ca2+, leading to dysfunction of membranes and cytotoxic edema .
Free radical damage in ischemia-reperfusion injury severely impacts prognosis after revascularization therapy. Thus, determining how to protect the brain from free radical damage is extremely urgent. In the following section, we review some of the most recent and effective therapies used to prevent free radical damage in ischemia-reperfusion injury that are used in combination with revascularization therapy. The adjunctive strategies have been both understudied in experimental and clinical research. The therapies are divided into two groups: nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical. Nonpharmaceutical therapies consist of remote ischemic conditioning and hypothermia, and pharmaceutical therapies consist of edaravone, uric acid, and citicoline.
Free radicals, especially ROS and RNS, have intense oxidation or nitrification abilities in the human brain. During cerebral ischemia reperfusion, especially with blood reflow, massive generation of ROS and RNS leads to cell death via DNA damage, protein dysfunction, and lipid peroxidization. Oxidative/nitrosative stress in ischemia-reperfusion injury also plays a key role in inducing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after revascularization therapy. Fortunately, many basic experiments and clinical trials have indicated that cotreatment of antifree radical damage strategies, including nonpharmaceutical therapies, such as RIC and hypothermia, and pharmaceutical therapies, such as edaravone, UA, and citicoline, with revascularization therapy is safe and feasible. Further research regarding therapies that prevent free radical damage in ischemia-reperfusion injury combined with revascularization therapy should be undertaken in the future. We will understand the pathomechanisms more deeply, and patients will get better benefits from revascularization therapy.
There are many reasons to think about eating better, but they do not all have to do with weight loss. Your food choices can help reduce stress in your body by reducing the number of free radicals in your cells.
While traditional holiday meals are laden with salt, fat and sugar, many foods we eat regularly, such as sweets and sodas, can also spike blood glucose and insulin levels. They also, alas, can increase the amount of free radicals, or molecules with unattached electrons, in the body, which can do serious cellular damage.
Under ordinary conditions, this oxidative process creates chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen. This in turn can lead to the production of molecules of free radicals that are unstable in high concentrations.
Free radicals damage the growth, development and survival of cells in the body. Their reactive nature allows them to engage in unnecessary side reactions causing cellular impairment and eventually injury when they are present in disproportionate amounts.
They directly impair cell membranes and DNA. This leads to cell mutation and causes new cells to grow erroneously, which means free radicals are associated with both development of cancer as well as the progression of aging. Free radicals are frequently implicated with health problems that are experienced with age, such as hardened arteries, diabetes and even wrinkle formation.