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Roman Young
Roman Young

Kindergarten Inga 5yo



*There is an exception to the compulsory attendance age of 6 if a child has been enrolled in a public or private school for more than 20 days. In this case, the parent would need to report the child to the DOE as homeschooling. An example of this would be if a child was in a public school kindergarten for more than 20 days. Even though the child may be 5 years old or turned 6 after Sept 1, the parent is required to report them as homeschooling.




kindergarten inga 5yo


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At their discretion, states may include preschool-aged children who are experiencing developmental delays, as defined by the state and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, who need special education and related services. If consistent with state policy, state and local educational agencies also may use funds received under this program to provide FAPE to 2-year olds with disabilities who will turn 3 during the school year. IDEA requires that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated with children who are not disabled and that removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes, with the use of supplementary aids and services, cannot be achieved satisfactorily. However, states are not required to provide public preschool programs for the general population. For this reason, preschool-aged children with disabilities are served in a variety of settings, including public or private preschool programs, regular kindergarten, Head Start programs, and child care facilities.


The state may also use its set-aside funds to provide early intervention services. These services must include an educational component that promotes school readiness and incorporates preliteracy, language, and numeracy skills. In addition, they must be provided in accordance with the Grants for Infants and Families program to children who are eligible for services under the Preschool Grants program and who previously received services under Part C until such children enter or are eligible to enter kindergarten and, at a state's discretion, to continue service coordination or case management for families who receive services under Part C.


A Black kindergarten girl in Pinellas County, Florida had a tantrum in school. The school decided the best way to handle it was to call the police and request that the girl be charged and arrested. St. Petersburg Police officers responded to the call; the officers felt the best thing to do was handcuff the small child. Because handcuffs are not designed to fit five year olds they had to use plastic ties on the girl's wrists; they hand cuffed her ankles and kept her bound in the back seat of police cruiser for several hours, while they sought to press charges against her. Footage of the police forcing the girl's hands behind her back and cuffing her and of excerpts of tantrum went viral on the web and played repeatedly on TV for some days.


Her parents, Marilyn and Leroy, raised her and three siblings on the eastern edge of Yakima. After she finished kindergarten, they relocated west of the Cascades so her brother, Jorden, could be closer to medical treatment.


The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy skills at school entry. Results replicate differences in theory of mind development among low-income children as compared to typically studied, higher-income samples. Theory of mind and the combination of several sociocognitive variables successfully predicted concurrent relations with academic outcomes. Children's understanding of teaching predicted changes in literacy scores over time. Results are discussed in the context of what is known about theory of mind and sociocognitive development in school readiness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).


Problem A key ingredient to academic success is being able to read. Deaf individuals have historically failed to develop literacy skills comparable to those of their normal-hearing peers, but early identification and cochlear implants have improved prospects that these children can learn to read at the levels of their peers. The goal of this study was to examine early, or emergent, literacy in these children. Method 27 deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) who had just completed kindergarten were tested on emergent literacy, as well as on cognitive and linguistic skills that support emergent literacy, specifically ones involving phonological awareness, executive functioning, and oral language. 17 kindergartners with normal hearing (NH) and 8 with hearing loss, but who used hearing aids (HAs) served as controls. Outcomes were compared for these three groups of children, regression analyses were performed to see if predictor variables for emergent literacy differed for children with NH and those with CIs, and factors related to the early treatment of hearing loss and prosthesis configuration were examined for children with CIs. Results Performance of children with CIs was roughly one or more standard deviations below the mean performance of children with NH on all tasks, except for syllable counting, reading fluency, and rapid serial naming. Oral language skills explained more variance in emergent literacy for children with CIs than for children with NH. Age of first implant explained moderate amounts of variance for several measures. Having one or two CIs had no effect, but children who had some amount of bimodal experience outperformed children who had none on several measures. Conclusions Even deaf children who have benefitted from early identification, intervention, and implantation are still at risk for problems with emergent literacy that could affect their academic success. This finding means that intensive language support needs to continue through at


The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Reach Out and Read (ROR) improves children's development and kindergarten readiness by encouraging parents to routinely share books with their children. Primary care providers give age-appropriate books and anticipatory guidance on reading at each well-child visit. This study evaluated parent attitudes and behaviors of early literacy related to ROR participation in Wisconsin clinics. A survey of early literacy attitudes and behaviors was administered to parents of children ages 6 months to 5 years in 36 Wisconsin clinics. Ten clinics were established ROR sites (intervention group) and 26 clinics had applied to become ROR programs but had not yet initiated the program (control group). Parents at clinics with ROR programs were more likely to read with a child under the age of 6 months (OR=1.58, 95% CI, 1.05-2.38). Other literacy metrics trended toward improvement but none reached statistical significance. Paradoxically, the odds of parents reporting reading as a bedtime habit were decreased among those who participated in ROR. Our study finds mixed support of the effectiveness of ROR outside of academic settings. The apparent discrepancy between these results and those from national studies on ROR may be related to differences in respondent demographics and educational attainment or differences in program implementation and fidelity. We believe that the results will become clearer with future study as clinics are prospectively evaluated over time rather than being compared to non-ROR clinics in a cross-sectional snapshot.


The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on an assessment of literacy skill development at the time of entrance into kindergarten. The different groups were tracked on phonics and text comprehension development through the third grade. Students in the average and high literacy readiness groups achieved high scores in decoding (phonics) by the end of the first grade. Students in the low readiness group did not match these scores until the third grade. Although the phonics gap was essentially closed in the third grade, a second, very significant text comprehension gap was exposed. The 3 readiness groups were analyzed to assess the relative contributions of parent education, income, and kindergarten literacy score to third-grade literacy achievement. The results of this study stress the need for speech-language pathologists to assess emergent literacy skills in their speech and language clients and to include appropriate literacy goals in the treatment regimen as a means for reducing the potential need for identification as learning disabled in reading in the later years of elementary school.


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