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Zinovy Khokhlov
Zinovy Khokhlov

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 4th edition 11: A Comprehensive and Engaging Guide for Students and Researchers

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 4th edition 11

If you are looking for a comprehensive, accessible and engaging textbook that will teach you everything you need to know about statistics and SPSS, then look no further than Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 4th edition 11 by Andy Field. This bestselling book is unrivalled in the way it makes the teaching of statistics compelling and fun for even the most anxious of students. It covers a wide range of topics, from basic concepts to advanced techniques, and uses SPSS throughout to illustrate and apply the theory. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book has to offer, why you should use it, and how you can get the most out of it.

Discovering Statistics Using Spss 4th Edition 11

What is SPSS and why use it?

SPSS stands for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and it is one of the most popular software programs for conducting statistical analyses. It is widely used by researchers, students and professionals in various fields, such as psychology, education, business, health sciences and more. SPSS has many advantages over other software programs, such as:

  • It is easy to use. You can perform most analyses by simply clicking on menus and buttons, without having to write any code.

  • It is flexible. You can customize your analyses by changing options, adding commands or writing syntax.

  • It is powerful. You can perform a variety of analyses, from simple descriptive statistics to complex multivariate models.

  • It is compatible. You can import and export data from different formats, such as Excel, CSV, SAS or Stata.

  • It is reliable. You can trust that your results are accurate and valid.

By using SPSS, you can learn statistics in a practical and interactive way. You can see how data are entered, manipulated and analyzed in SPSS, and how the results are interpreted and reported. You can also practice your skills by doing exercises and quizzes that are based on real-world data sets.

How to install and run SPSS

To use SPSS, you need to have a computer that meets the minimum system requirements, and a license that allows you to access the software. You can check the system requirements and the license options on the SPSS website. Once you have the software and the license, you can install and run SPSS by following these steps:

  • Download the SPSS installation file from the SPSS website or from a CD-ROM.

  • Run the installation file and follow the instructions on the screen.

  • Enter your license code when prompted.

  • Launch SPSS from your desktop or start menu.

When you run SPSS, you will see two main windows: the Data Editor and the Output Viewer. The Data Editor is where you enter and edit your data, and the Output Viewer is where you see your results. You can also open other windows, such as the Syntax Editor, where you can write and run commands, or the Chart Editor, where you can edit your graphs.

How to enter and manipulate data in SPSS

To enter data in SPSS, you need to create a data set that contains variables and cases. Variables are the characteristics that you measure or manipulate, such as age, gender, income or test scores. Cases are the units of observation, such as individuals, groups, organizations or events. You can enter data in SPSS by typing them manually, copying and pasting them from another source, or importing them from a file. To manipulate data in SPSS, you can use various tools and commands to transform, recode, compute, sort, filter or merge your data. To enter and manipulate data in SPSS, you can follow these steps:

  • Create a new data set or open an existing one.

  • Define your variables by giving them names, labels, values and measurement levels.

  • Enter your data by typing them in the cells or importing them from a file.

  • Manipulate your data by using menus, buttons or syntax.

You can check and edit your data at any time by switching between two views in the Data Editor: the Data View and the Variable View. The Data View shows your data in a spreadsheet-like format, where each row is a case and each column is a variable. The Variable View shows your variable definitions in a table-like format, where each row is a variable and each column is an attribute.

How to perform basic statistical analyses in SPSS

To perform statistical analyses in SPSS, you need to select the appropriate procedure for your research question and data type. You can choose from a wide range of procedures that are grouped into categories, such as Descriptive Statistics, Compare Means, Correlate, Regression or ANOVA. You can access these procedures by clicking on the Analyze menu or by using syntax. To perform statistical analyses in SPSS, you can follow these steps:

  • Select the procedure that matches your research question and data type.

  • Select the variables that you want to analyze and specify the options that you want to use.

  • Click OK or Run to execute the procedure.

  • View your results in the Output Viewer window.

You can also modify your results by changing options, adding commands or editing output. You can also export your results to other formats, such as Word, Excel or PDF.

What are the key concepts and techniques in statistics?

Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing and interpreting data. It helps us to answer questions, test hypotheses and make decisions based on evidence. Statistics involves many concepts and techniques that are essential for understanding and conducting research. Some of the key concepts and techniques in statistics are:

Data types and measurement levels

Data types are the categories of data that we can collect and analyze. There are two main types of data: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative data are non-numerical data that describe qualities or characteristics of something, such as words, colors, shapes or opinions. Quantitative data are numerical data that measure quantities or amounts of something, such as numbers, scores, counts or percentages.

Measurement levels are the ways of classifying quantitative data according to how they are measured. There are four main levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Nominal data are categorical data that have no order or rank, such as gender, race or religion. Ordinal data are categorical data that have an order or rank, such as education level, satisfaction rating or Likert scale. Interval data are continuous data that have equal intervals but no true zero point, such as temperature, IQ score or year of birth. Ratio data are continuous data that have equal intervals and a true zero point, such as height, weight or income.


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