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Zinovy Khokhlov
Zinovy Khokhlov

Acid Dye ((TOP))



An acid dye is a dye that is typically applied to a textile at low pH. They are mainly used to dye wool, not cotton fabrics.[1] Some acid dyes are used as food colorants,[2][3] and some can also be used to stain organelles in the medical field.




acid dye


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In the laboratory, home, or art studio, the acid used in the dye-bath is often vinegar (acetic acid) or citric acid. The uptake rate of the dye is controlled with the use of sodium chloride. In textiles, acid dyes are effective on protein fibers, i.e. animal hair fibers like wool, alpaca, and mohair. They are also effective on silk.[7] They are effective in dyeing the synthetic fiber nylon, but of minimum interest in dyeing any other synthetic fibers.


In staining during microscopic examination for diagnosis or research, acid dyes are used to color basic tissue proteins. In contrast, basic dyes are used to stain cell nuclei and some other acidic components of tissues.[8] Regarding cellular structures, acid dyes will stain acidophilic structures that have a net positive charge due to the fact that they have a negatively charged chromophore. Acidophilic structures include the cytoplasm, collagen and mitochondria. The two have an affinity for each other due to the conflicting charges.[9][10] Examples of acid dyes used in medicine include:[11]


Dharma's own line of professional Acid Dyes for Silk, Wool and Nylon! While we have offered other acid dyes for years, we have decided to mix and package our own line of Acid Dyes in order to increase the range of colors and to lower prices.


Acid Dyes are concentrated powdered dyes for dyeing protein fibers and some Nylons (best for PFP or "prepared for printing" Nylon). The best choice for tub dyeing silk and wool fabrics, skeins of silk or wool yarn, feathers, etc. You can also paint or print with with it if you fix it by steaming. For tub dyeing, use these dyes on your stove or in a washing machine, keeping in mind that they do require very HOT water or steaming for best results. The only other thing needed is white vinegar for the fixative, or citric acid which is odorless. Acid Dyes react fast, exhaust well, and results for most colors are very lightfast and washfast. As with all powdered dyes or craft chemicals, handle with care and use good housekeeping procedures. Our color charts were done from wool dyeings, in a pot, on the stove. Silk and wool do not always come out the same color, techniques and water cause variation, plus monitors vary, etc., so when color is critical, test, test, test! Wash items dyed with acid dye in cold water. For a dye for protein fibers that is washfast even in hot water, see our new Dharma Lanaset Dyes.


Acid Dyes are the dye of choice for dyeing all protein fibers, like wool and other animal hair like alpaca, angora, mohair, etc., silk, feathers, and also they dye nylon. They are even used on leather sometimes. These concentrated powdered dyes are used primarily for tub-dyeing yardage or clothing, or tub dyeing or painting on protein yarns & roving. You can use these dyes either on top of your stove or in a washing machine but they do require very hot water to work properly. Washing machines don't get as hot, but do maintain consistent time, temperature and agitation, yielding more even results. If you are using them for direct application you would steam or microwave them. The only other thing needed (as a fixative) is household white vinegar or a mild powdered acid like Citric Acid which is actually more economical and eliminates the Vinegar smell. Textbooks and commercial dyers also talk about adding leveling agents to get the most even solid colors, like Glauber's Salt to Leveling Acid Dyes and using Ammonium Sulfate (used also for fertilizing plants) first, before the vinegar or citric, with Milling and Pre-metallized Acid Dyes, especially when dyeing paler colors. Check out our article - "Did you Know how Acid Dyes Work" if you are a really serious wool/silk dyer and really want to get into the chemistry and types of Acid Dyes and how they work. We have identified all the pure colors on the chart at the bottom of the page as to what type they are, although information out there is conflicting. Basically, the ones marked with an M or a P need a little more work and possibly Ammonium Sulfate to get more even "level" dye jobs. For low immersion dyeing, where you want lots of color separation (sometimes called "breaking", our mixes marked P are great! Also keep in mind that Milling and Pre-metallized Acid Dyes, while more difficult to work with, are more wash-fast and often more light-fast than Leveling Acid Dyes. On the color chart, the colors marked "Advanced", or marked with a + on the blue chart below, are pre-metallized mixes, and they tend to "split" the most, even more so than pure pre-metallized colors.


Acid dyes are very economical, as they are very concentrated, react fast, and the results are very permanent for most colors (see chart below) - light and wash fast! The end color depends on your temperature, how much dye you use, how acid the dye-bath is, how long the fabric is in the dye, and how much fabric you have. Monitors and printed color charts can vary. Also, our color chart was done with a basic wool yarn. Silks sometimes come out lighter, sometimes even a different shade, so as with all dyes, it is important to test, test, test! If you have any problems after following the instructions, we have a "Dissolving and Trouble Shooting" segment we have written for you after much research. And as with all dye powders, you should handle them carefully. Common sense and good housekeeping (dust mask, gloves, proper ventilation, etc.) should always be used when handling any dye or chemicals. Keep out of reach of children and pets.


To get the colors on our color chart, we generally used between 1.5% & 2% OWG (of weight of goods), except for #413 True Black, #476 Toner Black and #409 Dark Navy. These colors have an * next to their names on our color charts and jar labels. For the blacks, we used 4%. For the Navy we got a nice Navy at 2%, and a dark "to dye for" Navy at 4%. 1.5% worked well for the light colors and 2% worked well for all the darker colors with the three exceptions above. That translates to 1/4 oz to 1/3 oz (or 2.25-3 tsp) of dye per pound of fabric for most colors, and 2/3 oz (6 tsp) of dye per pound of fabric for black and the deepest of Navies. You have to play with it as silk and wool uptake differently, so if the dye bath isn't exhausting all the way, even if you add more vinegar or citric acid, make yourself a note to use less dye next time for that color. These are very concentrated dyes, and that is one thing that makes them very economical. (Besides our great prices!)


If you are making stock solutions with your dyes remember to re-heat them before you use them. It is normal for some acid dye colors, especially Acid Red 266, to fall out of solution when the water cools, or even to thicken and gel when very concentrated. Heating will restore them. Only mix as much concentrate as you can use in about a months time, after that the dyes will get weaker and give less vivid results.


Jacquard acid dyes are concentrated hot water dyes that make the most vibrant colors on protein fibers (all animal fibers). Jacquard Acid Dyes will dye yarn or fibers and fleeces, silk, wool fibers, cashmere, alpaca, feathers, and most nylons easily and are also great for overdyeing.


Don't be alarmed by the name Jacquard Acid Dye, the only acid involved is the vinegar that you add yourself. Packaged in convenient, re-closable 1/2 oz. jars, Jacquard Acid Dyes will dye about two pounds of fiber, fleece, yarn or fabric to full strength, more if you mix your own lighter shades. Jacquard Acid Dyes are extremely brilliant and colorfast. If you can do a load of laundry, you can use these dyes. It's that easy.


Xennia Agate is a leading digital acid ink for Kyocera printheads. Using a carefully optimized dye set, Xennia Agate inks give prints with outstanding color intensity and uniformity with the best in application performance. By providing industry-leading reliability and color strength for demanding, high-volume printing systems, Xennia Agate gives unparalleled performance and printing control.


Mimaki has researched and developed inks and printers to solve various technical issues, including ink bleeding/shedding, gloomy colors, and fabric wrinkling, which are attributed to the properties of protein fibers. As a result of these developments, the printer optimizes the capabilities of the acid dye ink and enables the ink to produce vibrant colors on wool, leather, silk, and nylon. In addition, the printer maximizes the features of each fabric with its ability to print on thick materials.


Mixable acid dye powder for protein fibers such as wool, silk, and even man-made nylon. With 13 vibrant shades available, you can craft every color under the sun with ease. 10 grams will dye up to 2 lbs of mordanted fiber/yarn in only 30 minutes. With hot water and an acidic dye bath that includes added white vinegar or acid crystals, the fiber will exhaust the dyes beautifully. The best method is immersion on a stovetop.


Keep out of reach of children. Wear gloves, a dust mask, and protective clothing while handling. Do not swallow. Do not inhale. Harmful to aquatic life unless the dye bath is fully exhausted and PH balanced. This product is for dyeing craft and textile fibers only. Dye color may vary from batch to batch. When used correctly acid dye is non-hazardous to humans and the environment.


When you are completely finished with an acid dye bath, you should neutralize the bath. Add baking soda 1 tablespoon at a time and use pH test papers to verify that the exhausted bathwater is neutralized. Then pour the exhausted dyebath down the drain, flushing with plenty of water.


Acetic acid dye spray may offer a viable alternative to protocol-guided quadrantic biopsy sampling for the detection of Barrett neoplasia, say Prandeep Bhandari and colleagues from the Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK. 041b061a72


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