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Zinovy Khokhlov
Zinovy Khokhlov

A Shirt Manufacturer Buys Cloth By The 100

How much did you pay for the clothes in your closet? If you have the receipts, you can calculate this. However, there is a cost behind each dress, pair of jeans, shirt, and sock that goes unnoticed by most people: the cost to the environment.

a shirt manufacturer buys cloth by the 100

Many low-cost clothing stores offer new designs every week. In 2000, 50 billion new garments were made; nearly 20 years later, that figure has doubled, according to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation. The dizzying pace of apparel manufacturing has also accelerated consumption: the average person today buys 60 % more clothing than in 2000, the data show. And not only do they buy more, they also discard more as a result.

According to McKinsey, clothing production doubled from 2000 to 2014, and the average consumer buys 60% more garments each year. At the same time, these clothes are kept only half as long as they were a mere fifteen years ago.

Even after this increase, the average developing-country resident purchases a fraction of the clothing that his or her developed-world counterpart buys each year. Overall clothing sales could rise significantly if developing-country consumers choose to buy more clothing as their purchasing power increases. We estimate that if 80 percent of the population of emerging economies were to achieve the same clothing-consumption levels as the Western world by 2025, and the apparel industry does not become more environmentally efficient, then the environmental footprint of the apparel industry will become much larger (Exhibit 2).

Federal labeling requirements for textile and wool products, enforced by the FTC, require that most of these products have a label listing the fiber content, country of origin and identity of the manufacturer or another business responsible for marketing or handling the item.1Fur products have label requirements as well.2 Care labels for clothing are required by another rule enforced by the FTC.3

In deciding whether to mark a product as made in the U.S. either in whole or in part, a manufacturer also must consider the origin of materials that are one step removed from the particular manufacturing process. For example, a yarn manufacturer must identify imported fiber. A manufacturer of knitted garments must identify imported yarn. A manufacturer of apparel made from cloth must identify imported fabric.

Coupons entitle a purchaser to an immediate reduction in the sales price of an item when the coupon is presented to the retailer. Tax is calculated on the sales price net of all price reductions from coupons. A retailer, a manufacturer, or another third party may issue coupons. To determine whether an item of clothing or footwear costs less than $50, the retailer should use the sales price after the face value of the coupon (or any higher value given to the coupon by the retailer) is deducted from the original sales price.

Alterations and Monogramming: Clothing alterations are not taxable, whether done by the retailer of the clothing or by a third party. If a retailer charges separately for alterations to an article of clothing when the item is purchased, the alteration charges are not part of the sales price of the item. Therefore, if a customer buys an article of clothing, the sale is not taxable if the cost of the item before the addition of separately stated alteration charges is less than $50.

Charges for monogramming made by a retailer at the time an item is purchased are part of the sales price, and must be added to the price of the item to determine the full sales price. Therefore, if a customer buys an article of clothing or footwear and pays the retailer for monogramming at the time of purchase, the sale is not taxable if the total charge, including monogramming, is less than $50.

Rain Checks: If a retailer issues a rain check to a customer before April 1, 2003, for an article of clothing or footwear costing less than $75 but at least $50, and the customer buys the item after April 1, 2003, using the rain check, the item is taxable.

Exchanges: When a customer buys an article of clothing or footwear costing less than $75 before April 1, 2003, and the customer exchanges the item for a like item after April 1, 2003, the exchange is not taxable provided the sales price of the like item is also less than $75. A like item is the same item with a different style, different size, or different color (such as a shirt for a shirt).

If a customer buys an article of clothing or footwear costing less than $75 before April 1, 2003, then returns it after April 1, 2003, for a refund or credit toward another item costing more than $50, the customer may not use the refund or credit to reduce the price of the second item. The second item is taxable.

Example: A customer buys a shirt before April 1, 2003, for $65 and exchanges it after April 1, 2003, for a pair of pants costing $70. The pants are taxable because the customer did not exchange like items.

Thus, if we consider the same example as above, the manufacturer buys raw materials/inputs at Rs 100 after paying tax of Rs 10. The gross value of the shirt (good) he manufacturers would be Rs 130, on which he pays a tax of Rs 13. But since there is no set-off against the Rs 10 he has already paid as tax on raw materials/inputs, the good is sold to the wholesaler at Rs 143 (130 + 13).

A T-shirt (also spelled tee-shirt or tee shirt), or tee for short, is a style of fabric shirt named after the T shape of its body and sleeves. Traditionally, it has short sleeves and a round neckline, known as a crew neck, which lacks a collar. T-shirts are generally made of a stretchy, light, and inexpensive fabric and are easy to clean. The T-shirt evolved from undergarments used in the 19th century and, in the mid-20th century, transitioned from undergarment to general-use casual clothing.

They are typically made of cotton textile in a stockinette or jersey knit, which has a distinctively pliable texture compared to shirts made of woven cloth. Some modern versions have a body made from a continuously knitted tube, produced on a circular knitting machine, such that the torso has no side seams. The manufacture of T-shirts has become highly automated and may include cutting fabric with a laser or a water jet.

T-shirts are inexpensive to produce and are often part of fast fashion, leading to outsized sales of T-shirts compared to other attire.[1] For example, two billion T-shirts are sold per year in the United States,[2] or the average person from Sweden buys nine T-shirts a year.[3] Production processes vary but can be environmentally intensive, and include the environmental impact caused by their materials, such as cotton which is both pesticide and water intensive.[4][5][6]

In 1913, the U.S. Navy first issued them as undergarments.[7] These were a crew-necked, short-sleeved, white cotton undershirt to be worn under a uniform. It became common for sailors and Marines in work parties, the early submarines, and tropical climates to remove their uniform jacket, thus wearing (and soiling) only the undershirt.[8] They soon became popular as a bottom layer of clothing for workers in various industries, including agriculture. The T-shirt was easily fitted, easily cleaned, and inexpensive; for those reasons, it became the shirt of choice for young boys. Boys' shirts were made in various colors and patterns. The word T-shirt became part of American English by the 1920s, and appeared in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.[7]

By the Great Depression, the T-shirt was often the default garment to be worn when doing farm or ranch chores, as well as other times when modesty called for a torso covering but conditions called for lightweight fabrics.[8] Following World War II, it was worn by Navy men as undergarments and slowly became common to see veterans wearing their uniform trousers with their T-shirts as casual clothing. The shirts became even more popular in the 1950s after Marlon Brando wore one in A Streetcar Named Desire, finally achieving status as fashionable, stand-alone, outerwear garments.[9] Often boys wore them while doing chores and playing outside, eventually opening up the idea of wearing them as general-purpose casual clothing.

Current versions are available in many different designs and fabrics, and styles include crew-neck and V-neck shirts. T-shirts are among the most worn garments of clothing used today. T-shirts are especially popular with branding for companies or merchandise, as they are inexpensive to make and purchase.

T-shirts were originally worn as undershirts, but are now worn frequently as the only piece of clothing on the top half of the body, other than possibly a brassiere or, rarely, a waistcoat (vest). T-shirts have also become a medium for self-expression and advertising, with any imaginable combination of words, art and photographs on display.[11]

A T-shirt typically extends to the waist. Variants of the T-shirt, such as the V-neck, have been developed. Hip hop fashion calls for tall-T shirts which may extend down to the knees. A similar item is the T-shirt dress or T-dress, a dress-length T-shirt that can be worn without pants.[12] Long T-shirts are also sometimes worn by women as nightgowns. A 1990s trend in women's clothing involved tight-fitting cropped T-shirt or crop tops short enough to reveal the midriff. Another less popular trend is wearing a short-sleeved T-shirt of a contrasting color over a long-sleeved T-shirt, which is known as layering. T-shirts that are tight to the body are called fitted, tailored or baby doll T-shirts.

In the 1960s, the ringer T-shirt appeared and became a staple fashion for youth and rock-n-rollers. The decade also saw the emergence of tie-dyeing and screen-printing on the basic T-shirt and the T-shirt became a medium for wearable art, commercial advertising, souvenir messages, and protest art messages. Psychedelic art poster designer Warren Dayton pioneered several political, protest, and pop-culture art printed large and in color on T-shirts featuring images of Cesar Chavez, political cartoons, and other cultural icons in an article in the Los Angeles Times magazine in late 1969 (ironically, the clothing company quickly cancelled the experimental line, fearing there would not be a market). In the late 1960s, Richard Ellman, Robert Tree, Bill Kelly, and Stanley Mouse set up the Monster Company in Mill Valley, California, to produce fine art designs expressly for T-shirts. Monster T-shirts often feature emblems and motifs associated with the Grateful Dead and marijuana culture.[15] Additionally, one of the most popular symbols to emerge from the political turmoil of the 1960s were T-shirts bearing the face of Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara.[16] 041b061a72

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